Roman numerals are better known today than any
other ancient system of numeration. Originating in
ancient Rome, the system they developed remained a
primary system of numeration for many centuries, and
after a slight modification in the Middle Ages,
continues to see some specialized use today. The
primary distinction between the Roman and Arabic
numerals we use today, is that Romans didn't have a
symbol to signify zero, and that numeral placement
within a number can sometimes indicate subtraction
(IX) rather than addition (XI).
Roman numerals are most commonly used today in the
numbering of movie sequels (Star Trek IV: The Voyage
Home, Star Wars: Episode VI - Return of the Jedi,
The Godfather: Part II); the numbering of some sporting
events, such as the Olympic Games or the Super Bowls;
the order of rulers, popes or ships who share the same
name (Pope John Paul II, King George VI, Queen Elizabeth II);
volumes or chapters in a book, publishing industry
copyright dates, production dates seen at the end of
motion picture credits, some historic events (World War I,
World War II), and clocks with Roman numeral clockfaces.
Roman numerals are usually written in upper-case
letters (I, II, III, X, and XXV). Occasionally Roman
numerals are written using lower-case letters (i, ii,
iii, x, and xxv), particularly when numbering
paragraphs or sections within chapters, or for the
pagination of the front matter of some books.
Basic Roman numerals use the following symbols
I or i = 1 (one) V or v = 5 (five) X or x = 10 (ten) L or l = 50 (fifty) C or c = 100 (one hundred) (centum) D or d = 500 (five hundred) M or m = 1,000 (one thousand) (mille)
When two or more of the above symbols are combined,
the result can be: II or ii = 2 (two) III or iii = 3 (three) IV or iv = 4 (four) (sometimes written IIII on Roman
numeral clocks or iiii) VI or vi = 6 (six) VII or vii = 7 (seven) VIII or viii = 8 (eight) IX or ix = 9 (nine)
Remember that numeral placement within a number
sometimes indicates subtraction rather than addition.
So, if you place a smaller Roman numeral in front
of a larger one, you are indicating subtraction.
Placing X in front of C indicates subtraction of
ten (X) from 100 (C). Thus, XC equals ninety (90).
Other examples: IX = 9 (nine) XIX = 19 (nineteen) XL = 40 (forty) CD = 400 (four hundred) CM = 900 (nine hundred) MCM = 1900 (nineteen hundred)
Basic Arabic numerals used by most modern societies include the following figures
0 (zero) 1 (one) 2 (two) 3 (three) 4 (four)
5 (five) 6 (six) 7 (seven) 8 (eight) 9 (nine)
Roman Numerals (1-100) and Roman Numeral Dates (100-2100)
Below you will find Roman numerals and their Arabic
numeral equivalents listed chronologically 1 (one) through
100 (one hundred), as well as Roman numeral dates shown in
chronological order from 100 - 2100.
IV (IIII on clocks)
Roman numeral dates shown in chronological order (100-199)